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TAG overview


(11) Marketing and selling expenses

Operating Activities

(11) Marketing and selling expenses

Accounting and measurement policies

Marketing and selling expenses

Marketing and selling expenses within logistics costs also include expenses for transportation services performed on behalf of customers. The corresponding income from these services is presented under net sales.

Amortization of the intangible assets under marketing and selling expenses is mainly attributable to customer relationships, marketing authorizations, licenses and similar rights, brands, and trademarks, which can be functionally allocated to Marketing and selling.

Marketing and selling expenses comprised the following items:

€ million





Sales force





Internal sales services





Sales promotion










Amortization of intangible assets1





Royalty and license expenses





Other marketing and selling expenses





Marketing and selling expenses






Excluding amortization of internally generated or separately acquired software.

The reduction in expenses for the sales force and sales promotion is largely due to the lockdown in a number of jurisdictions in order to combat the Covid-19 pandemic. The increase in logistics expenses was due in particular to modified transportation routes and higher freight rates as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic.

The lower level of amortization of intangible assets was due to the end of the scheduled amortization of assets recognized in connection with the acquisition of Serono SA, Switzerland.

Of the royalty and license expenses, € 51 million (2019: € 68 million) related to license expenses for Glucophage® in China with the distribution partner Bristol-Myers Squibb, Corp., United States, and € 41 million (2019: € 41 million) related to the commercialization of Erbitux® in Japan.